Chinese landscape painting
Source: internal company
Chinese landscape painting has a long and fine tradition. As an independent painting branch, it can be traced back to Sui and Tang Dynasties. After more than 1,000 years of development and changes, it has produced numerous treasures and accumulated rich and unique traditions.
It was formed in the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, but it has not yet been completely separated from figure painting. It became independent in Sui and Tang Dynasties and matured in the Five Dynasties and Northern Song Dynasties, becoming an important subject of Chinese painting. Traditionally, according to the style of painting, it is divided into a green landscapes, Jinbi landscape, ink landscape, light crimson landscape, small green landscape, boneless landscape, etc.
Landscape painting first appeared as the background of figure painting. Gu Kaizhi, a painter in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, can see its appearance with a copy of "Luo Shen Fu Tu" and has a strong decorative style. With the emergence of landscape painting, Zong Bing's "Preface to Painting Landscape" and Wei Wang's "Syria Painting" in the Southern Song Dynasty can be said to be the earliest creative principles of traditional Chinese landscape painting, which undoubtedly contributed to the development of landscape painting at that time. In particular, Wang Wei used poems and paintings to create artistic conception other than simple lyricism. . He first adopted the splash-ink landscape technique, greatly developed the ink taste and artistic conception of landscape painting, made great contributions to the change of landscape painting, and then prepared the conditions for the maturity of landscape painting.
The Five Dynasties to the Two Song Dynasties were a mature and sound period for the development of landscape painting. They were also the heyday of Chinese landscape painting, with a large number of famous artists. The north is represented by Jing Hao and Guan Tong. They have a strong understanding and feeling of the magnificent natural mountains and rivers in the north that they have been in contact with for a long time. However, the south is represented by Dong Yuan and Ju Ran. Compared with the magnificent landscapes in Jing and Guan paintings in the north, their paintings are more beautiful and lyrical in ink and ink. Their landscape paintings are ink and green. He is especially good at ink and wash landscapes, combining chapped, rubbed, dotted, and dyed, creating methods of expression such as chapped hemp and chapped dots. Their characteristics have formed two different styles and painting schools, reflecting the great achievements of landscape painting in this period. In fact, it is also a change of Chinese landscape painting since the formation of Sui and Tang Dynasties. In the two Song Dynasties, Gu Cheng, Fan Kuan, Guo Xi, Mi Fei and Mi Youren made outstanding achievements in the Northern Song Dynasty. The Southern Song Dynasty was represented by Li Tang, Liu Songnian, Ma Yuan and Xia Gui.
With the development of history, Zhao Meng, a painter in the Yuan Dynasty, completed another transformation of the four Yuan families (Huang Gongwang, Zhen Wu, Ni Zan and Wang Meng), which was another major development of Chinese landscape painting. They moved the brush from Juan Su to the paper, which further developed the performance of the pen and ink. The four brush and ink methods have all changed from light to deep, drying first and then wetting many times, becoming an important expression method of landscape painting. The subjective aspect of their creation was strengthened. Writing scenery means writing emotion and freehand brushwork, which laid the foundation for literati landscape painting and was also the key to this change.
Another change was in the middle and late Ming Dynasty and the early Qing Dynasty. This period was a turbulent era when dynasties changed. It happened that a group of painters with strong faces had already arrived. In the middle of the Ming Dynasty, Shen Zhou and Wen Jiming initiated the expression method of landscape painting symbolizing personality, and in the early Qing Dynasty, Zhu Da, Shi Tao, Ran Can, Gong Xian, Hong Ren and Mei Qing performed well. Zhu Da and Shi Tao are the most outstanding representatives among them.
As a landscape painting, a change in modern times was in the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China and after the founding of the People's Republic of China. The characteristics of this period are that on the basis of absorbing the traditions of predecessors, they pay attention to sketching from nature and absorb foreign techniques without being bound by traditional ideas. This period was represented by the modern Lingnan School of Painting and the painters Gao Jianfu, Gao Qifeng and Chen Shuren in the early period of liberation. In terms of art, they advocated a compromise between the East and the West to study Oriental painting, thus sprouting the idea of reforming Chinese painting. In fact, they tried to learn from Western painting in the middle of the Qing Dynasty, such as Lang Shining and Lu Wei, who achieved great success, but did not cause much sensation at that time.
Looking at the development history and changes of Chinese landscape painting, landscape painting needs to develop and must earnestly study and inherit the tradition. We must face nature and observe and experience in life. Learn from nature, Zhongde Xinyuan has laid the foundation for the method of landscape painting creation. Not mechanically imitating nature, But a dialectical description of nature, This process is a combination of reality and ideal, It is the experience that comes from life and is higher than life. Under its guidance, painters of all dynasties have created a large number of excellent works, reflecting different times and different personal mental outlook. They are full of flowers and spectacles. They are forward-looking and carry forward the past. May we make more perfect use of pen and ink, invent and create our own new techniques, and follow this road to seek a broader artistic world for the innovation of Chinese landscape painting.